When it comes to saving for college, you want to make sure you make the most of your money. A 529 plan can help. Getting tax advantages on the money you save for higher education is the big draw of section 529 plans. 529 plans, generally operated by the state you live in, come in the form of either a college savings plan or a prepaid tuition plan.
With a college savings plan, you contribute to an account that you can eventually tap to pay for qualified higher education expenses at any private or public school in any state. Nearly every state in the United States has its own college savings plan, and the details of various plans differ from state to state.
Contributions to a college savings plan are not deductible for federal income tax purposes, but some states may allow their residents to deduct contributions for state income tax purposes (please note, certain limitations do apply, be sure to contact your plan's administrator to determine what limits currently apply.)
Withdrawals for qualified higher education expenses are exempt from federal, and in most cases, state income taxes. Qualified expenses include, among other things, tuition, fees and certain room and board charges. If money from a college savings plan account is used for nonqualified purposes, earnings on that money become subject to federal and state income tax in addition to an additional federal 10% tax. A state penalty may also apply (at the state level, a non-qualified distribution could be included in income as well as subject to a penalty).
A college savings plan offers multiple investment options for your account balance, and these options vary from plan to plan. As the account owner, you maintain control of the account, choosing among the investment options and deciding when to take withdrawals. There are no income restrictions tied to a college savings plan. There are also no annual contribution limits, but there are maximum account balances which vary by state, and may be more than $200,000 per student. You can transfer an account to any eligible family member. (Be sure to check the plan's Disclosure Booklet for details on who qualifies as an eligible family member.)
Prepaid tuition plans are 529 plans offered by some states to allow you to guard against inflation by locking in current tuition rates. By contributing to a prepaid tuition plan (typically on an installment basis), you prepay tuition at any covered public college or university located in the state operating the plan.
Your contributions go into an account that gets credited with any investment earnings based on average tuition increases. You are not given any other investment options. Although your contributions are not deductible for federal income tax purposes, some states may allow residents to deduct contributions for state income tax purposes. Any earnings on your account that are used to pay qualified tuition are federal income tax free, and may be exempt from state and local taxes as well.
You can combine a prepaid tuition plan with other savings options. For example, you could potentially use the prepaid plan for tuition and a college savings plan for other qualified expenses, such as room and board.
Contributions to a 529 plan being used to fund a loved ones higher education are considered gifts. Under the annual gift tax exclusion, contributions of up to $14,000 per beneficiary for 2015 ($28,000 in the case of a married couple making the contributions) are exempt from federal gift tax. Speak with a qualified financial advisor about the 5-year election provision before contributing an amount in excess of the annual gift tax exclusion.
Before investing in a 529 plan, you should consider whether the state you or your designated beneficiary reside in or have taxable income in has a 529 plan that offers favorable state income tax or other benefits that are only available if you invest in that state's 529 plan.
Neither TIAA-CREF nor its affiliates offer tax advice. The tax information herein is not intended to be used, and cannot be used by any taxpayer, for the purpose of avoiding tax penalties. Taxpayers should seek advice based on their own particular circumstances from an independent tax advisor. Nonqualified withdrawals may be subject to federal and state taxes and the additional federal 10% tax.
TIAA-CREF Tuition Financing, Inc. (TFI) serves as program manager for various 529 College Savings Plans.
These product features can vary from state to state. Please check your state's 529 Plan Program Brochure and Program Disclosure Booklet for more details. The material is for informational purposes only and should not be regarded as a recommendation or an offer to buy or sell any product or service to which this information may relate.
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